In the modern world, people are used to living in comfortable conditions. And the higher the standard of living, the more benefits surround people. One of such essential conditions for the comfortable life of the population today is the availability of hot water systems in apartments and private houses. Today the consumption of hot water is equal to the use of cold water and sometimes even exceeds it.
What it is?
The hot water systems are the provision of the population, including its domestic needs, as well as production needs, with high-temperature hot water systems (up to +75 degrees Celsius). It is an important indicator of the level and quality of life, as well as a condition for compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards. The hot water systems consist of special equipment, functioning in combination, which serves to heat water to the desired temperature, as well as to supply it to the water intake points.
Most often, these hot water systems consist of the following elements:
- water heater;
- fittings for water supply.
Types of devices
The hot water systems can be of two types.
- An open system has a coolant. Water is supplied from a central heating system. It is so named because the supply comes from the heating system. This system is commonly used in multi-apartment buildings. For private homes, an open system would be too expensive.
- A closed system functions differently and has its own differences. First, cold drinking water is taken from a central water supply system or an external network, then it is heated in a heat exchanger, and only after that is supplied to the water intake points. This water can be used for cooking, as it does not contain elements harmful to health.
There are also independent hot water systems. Water is heated in a boiler room or heating point then supplied to the house. It is called independent because it operates separately and is not connected to the heating system. It is used in private homes or cottages.
As for water heaters, they are divided into two types.
Their choice depends only on the wishes of the owner, as well as on the living conditions of the premises.
- Flowing. They do not store water but heat it up as needed. Such a heater is activated instantly as soon as the water is turned on. They can be electric or gas.
- Accumulative. Such hot water boilers collect water in a special tank and heat it up. Hot water can be used at any time. Electric boilers are large in size.
Principle of operation
The hot water systems can be dead-end or circulating. The dead-end scheme is used with constant use of hot water. With an inconsistent water intake, the water in the pipes cools down and is no longer too hot. In order to obtain water of the required hot temperature, it will take a long time to drain it, which is not very convenient. With a circulation scheme, water is always supplied hot, but such a system is more expensive. Such a scheme is well suited in cases of periodic water withdrawal. The water temperature is constantly maintained and users receive hot water.
The circulation system in such systems can be of two types.
- Forced. This type uses pumps as in a building heating system. Forced systems are used in multi-story buildings with a height of two floors or more.
- Natural. In one- and two-story houses, natural circulation is used, since the length of the pipelines is small. It operates on a system of circulation pipes based on the difference in a water mass at different temperatures. This method is the same as the water heating method using natural circulation.
Hot water supply consists of the following elements:
- water heater or generator;
- water intake points.
Water heaters of several types can be generators.
- High-speed water-to-water heaters work on the basis that hot water systems, which comes either from the boiler room or from the central heating supply, passes through brass pipes. They are located inside steel pipes, and the space between them is filled with heated water. Thus, heating occurs.
- The steam-water heater is operated by steam entering the heater. The water is heated by passing through the brass pipes located inside. Such systems are used in dwellings with constant water consumption and high water consumption.
- In houses with intermittent and low water consumption, storage water heaters are used. They not only heat but also accumulate hot water.
Pipelines for both hot and cold water supply are a single system, they are laid in parallel. Mixers are installed at the water intake points, which allow you to get different temperatures (from +20 to +70 degrees Celsius) due to the mixing of hot and cold water. In a hot water supply system, it is better to use galvanized or plastic pipes so that corrosion does not occur. It is better to insulate pipelines and risers to avoid unnecessary heat loss. In modern houses, hot and cold water meters are installed to measure water consumption, which allows you not to overpay for consumption, but to pay only for consumed water.