On both hobby farms and commercial farms, fences perform an important function of restricting and protecting animals and crops. The choice of the fences should be based on what purpose it serves – you can choose dozens of different fencing products. In most cases, this will be some option of wire fencing. And remember to consider whether you need a permit to build your fences, or whether you should hire professionals.
Basics of fencing
The strength and durability of the enclosing material can be measured by its wire gauge and the method of fastening the wires together. The metal wire is measured according to the American Wire Gauge (AWG) rating, in which smaller numbers indicate thicker wires. For example, in this system, the 10-wheel wire is heavier than, for example, the 12-gauge wire.
The strength of the wire fencing material also depends on how the wires are fastened together. The least expensive (and cheapest) wire fence is a welded wire, in which individual wires are simply spot welded at the point of their intersection. From this basic level, there are various ways of weaving and crimping, and tying vertical and horizontal wires together to provide strength appropriate to the use of the fence. For example, large animals have different needs than poultry, and animals that are known to push or rise have a barrier material designed specifically for them.
Of course, in any farm estate can be the same types of fences for housing, common in urban and suburban homes, such as chain links, picket fences, etc. Here are some typical fences typical of farms.
Barbed wire is a classic farm fence for limiting cattle, consisting of two or three horizontal threads of strong braided wire, into which sharp thorns are inserted. The strands are strung between metal or wooden poles. Barbed wire fences restrict livestock with simple disgust – the animals come to the association of fencing with painful injections and learn to stay away from it. Barbed wire works well enough to keep relatively obedient animals in large spaces, but they can be easily disturbed by a large, aggressive animal. They are not very attractive, but highly effective in their purpose.
However, the barbed wire does nothing to keep deer and most wild animals from your farm fields. And be sure to check the zoning rules. In some semi-rural areas, the barbed wire may be the opposite.
This main farm fence is made of rigid wires arranged in vertical and horizontal rows with interconnected joints. Usually a grid of squares two centimeters long and three to four inches high. Welding can break, so this type is usually used for light scales, such as restricting small animals or to protect birds or gardens. For example, it can be used to keep foxes, coyotes and other small predators away from small livestock. Welded wire fencing is usually made of 16 or 14 caliber wire and is sold in rolls of 24 inches, 36 inches, 48 inches or 60 inches wide.
Another type of wire fence, but one that uses heavier caliber wire, with joints that are tightened to provide extra strength. It is used for cattle, pigs, and other cattle. The calibration wire is typically about 12-wheeled, but the upper and lower wires can be heavier than 10 calibrated wires to provide extra strength. There are several options:
- The hinge assembly of the fence strengthens each section of wire, wrapping vertical wires around the horizontal. This provides much greater lateral strength than a standard welded wire fence, but animals prone to climbing can cause horizontal wires to slip.
- Fence with a fixed node: In this style, wire intersections are reinforced in both directions, which prevents slipping of the fence wires in general.
- Wicker field fence: In this style, the wires are intertwined and reinforced with some form of knot. Special compressed seams allow you to get some flexibility under the impact, which allows the fence to spring back into shape after large animals press on it. This can be especially useful for limiting livestock that is known to push or ram a fence, such as goats, kings, or bulls.
It is similar to a fence made of welded wire but smoothes on both sides to prevent scratches on cattle. This is especially useful for horses that tend to comb their skins to fences. Some types use a V-mesh design to prevent horses from getting their hooves into the net. The wire sensor is usually 14 or 12 wheel, and the fence is sold in rolls with a width of 60 or more. If sold as a non-climbing fence, it will use a different V-mesh design or narrower, two-inch mesh squares that are too small for the hooves to pass. The joints will be compressed or tied with a knot to prevent the horizontal wires from sliding on the vertical wires.
Fence made of deer and wildlife
This applies to a special form of wicker or braided wire fence, which is usually higher than other types – often six feet in height or more. It also has a design in which the dimensions of the grid are graduated, while the mesh squares near the ground are small enough to scare away small wild animals, but gradually become larger as the fence approaches the top. Wildlife and deer can be used effectively to keep plant-eating animals, such as deer out of the field or gardens, and can prevent predators from large and small people from entering livestock.
The ubiquitous chicken wire fence is a familiar pattern of diamond mesh made of small weave, which is used to protect bird cages and garden spaces. A relatively light wire of 20 caliber is woven into diamond-shaped nets from one to two inches in size. Chicken wire is sold in rolls two to five feet wide. It is useful for keeping foxes, hawks and other small predators from feasting on birds, and can also protect gardens.
This is a familiar wooden fence after the rail, in which two or three horizontal rails are nailed or otherwise attached to wooden poles. They are well-groomed, so railway fences are now often reserved for decorative or stylistic purposes. Rail fences are often combined with wire fences to improve their practical function. For example, a decorative fence made of wooden rails may have an electric fence around the perimeter to prevent cattle from pressing against the rails. Other types of wire fences can also serve to strengthen the inner fence of wooden rails, offering the best in both worlds – an attractive appearance and a strong barrier for animals.
An electric fence is an effective but unattractive fence that uses insulated horizontal wires attached to insulated vertical circles. A pulsating current is sent through the wires, quickly scaring away any cattle that are pressed against it. Sometimes it can be installed inside a decorative wooden fence. In some forms, the entire electrical grid is electrified – which is especially useful for poultry houses where it can keep birds and predators.
Electric fences are not particularly dangerous, although a brush against one really causes an unpleasant surprise. However, be careful if you have small children in your household.
In places where snowy winters are a fact of life, snow fences made of narrow vertical wooden rails connected by wire can be used to break through the wind and prevent the blockage of snow drifts and roads. They are especially useful in prairie areas or on the bare tops of hills, exposed to sharp winter winds.
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